Re: Case stud question
Use a shop vac to suck any debris that will fall out of the bottom of the stud holes before, during and after. Yes there will be all sorts of bad things fall onto the flywheels when doing this. Be aware that if you use brake cleaner or some other sort of spray cleaner, DON"T squirt it to the side, only forward or back. A side ways squirt will wash the debris over pinon or sprocket bearings.
A mid 70's shovel should have 10 fin cylinders with the thinner base flanges. Mid 78 or so they changed the castings to have 9 fins and thicker base flanges. Look for a casting number that ends with -66 for the thinner base flange or casting numbers that end with a -78 for the later thicker base flanges. The older engines had shorter cylinder studs than the later did. Only the later engines used the triangle shaped washers. Those later cylinders with the longer studs, thicker base flanges, triangle washers used a flanged nut the has a 9/16" hex. The older engines with the shorter studs, thin base flanges, no washers used a tall 5/8" outer hex size. Mix and match or even placing the washer upside down is a risk of cracking a cylinder base flange. If the washer don't fully seat flat on the base flange expect bad things soon.
I like the red or green high strength bearing or sleeve retainer types on the case end of the studs. There is no need or good reason to use Loctite on the cylinder base nuts to the studs. I use either an anti-seize compound or the ARP brand thread lube. Properly torqued base nuts will not work loose providing the base gaskets don't crush, split and spit out. Yes a few retorque sessions will be needed as paper base gaskets conform and shrink with time and use. Coated metal base gaskets are much less likely to crush down and loose base nut torque. The last 6-8 years I have only used an anaerobic type sealer without base gaskets for the cylinders on shovelheads and have far fewer oil leaks and zero retorquing needed. If you use sealer only and no gaskets, a little sealer is good and more is not better. Clean and dry surfaces without any oil film is a must for a sealer only without a gasket joint.